Though the Sapphire is usually thought of as a blue corundum, it occurs in all colors except red; a red corundum is called a ruby. While it is easy to assume that the name sapphire originates from the Hebrew "sapphir" meaning most beautiful of things, it now believed that the stone the early Hebrews knew as sapphir was actually lapis lazuli. A more probable source for the name would be the Sanskrit "sanipriya" meaning sacred to Sani a deity later associated with Saturn
                The sapphire is a very sacred stone in folklore. It was said to be the Stone of Truth and predates the diamond in wedding rings as a symbol of fidelity and consistency. This stone was said to be so holy that it could strike down venomous creatures and cause evil spirits to flee at the sight of it. The sapphire had was much sought after by witches and necromancers who believed it could control spirits and render obscure prophecies comprehensible. It was also valued by the Roman Catholic Church, where it found a place on the fingers of cardinals as rings of office.
               The star sapphire is a variety of sapphire that exhibits a star when cut en cabochon. The three lines across the face of the stone were said to stand for faith, hope, and destiny, the last of which earned the star sapphire the title of "The Stone of Destiny". In addition to magnifying the virtues of the regular sapphire this stone was said to not only undo sorceries bur render the wearer immune from all enchantment, quill enemies, and undo chains and bonds so that the wearer could not be held captive. So powerful a charm was the sapphire that its benefits are said to help the original owner even after the stone is given away

Any color except red                     
Australia, Brazil, Burma, China, Egypt, Norway, Pakistan, and the USA
Al2O3, Aluminum oxide
6 - 6.5

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