This is the symbol for the Wiccian Goddess. As the tenets of Wicca profess that all goddesses are the same, and all gods are the same, she has no name and is representative of a vague concept of feminine divinity. The Goddess Symbol is not more than fifty years old, and was based primarily on the imagery in the books by Marija Gimbutas, most notable the Predynastic Egyptian "Bird Goddess" figurine.
Contrary to pop culture this symbol is positively NOT and ancient symbol. There are several reasons for this certainty, the least of which being that soft polytheism, the concept that all deities are the same, and we just call them different names because of our cultures or to better understand them, is a very modern concept itself and postdates monotheism.
Marija Gimbutas was one of the first to propose the belief that an ancient mother goddess once ruled mankind, and that under her rule everyone was equal (except men), and that in this society homosexuality was exalted. Her interpretation of available data on this subject has been called into question by almost every reputable archeologist, it should be noted that this includes many prominent female archeologists, as fanciful. To date many of her theories have been proven inaccurate at best; though, some have even suggested they were outright constructed to support her late feminist viewpoints and sexual orientation.
This symbol of the "Ancient Mother Goddess" was supposed to been found in every culture, most prominently as the "Bird Goddesses". The problem with this is that only one statue has ever been found resembling this symbol, and indeed this Predynastic Egyptian figure looks very similar to the symbol, except for the beak. Unfortunately all of the other "Bird Goddesses" appear in much more varied formats with the only common thread being the beak and their locations. They bear absolutely no semblance to the Goddess Symbol. In all the span of humanity a single statue hardly constitutes a symbol that is found throughout mankind's history.
I feel it is necessary to point out that this article is intended to explain the origin of the "Goddess Symbol", and not as a condemnation of Wicca or homosexuality. A symbol needs not be ancient to be significant in today's society, nor should the actions of one person be considered the view of everyone of that same race, religion or sexual orientation.
This is not even an attack on Marija Gimbutas as a person. In fact, even many of her critics often said she was very kind and compassionate; she just had an issue with objectively analyzing data. And so, it is with this in mind that the reader should realize that this article is not a social commentary but a dissertation on the origins of a single symbol.